It is important that you present your own ideas, opinions and analyses throughout your essay. Citations are included within the text and a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text, both according to the referencing style required by your unit. Essay writing is different to: 1 reflective writing , which is based primarily on your personal experiences 2 report writing , which focuses primarily on reporting facts and making recommendations.
If in doubt, ask early! Your lecturer and tutor are there to help — and you can always ask for further advice from a Writing Mentor or a Language and Learning Adviser. In general, your marker will be looking for evidence that you have:. Again, always consult your unit guide and assessment instructions for exact details of your assignment.
These should clearly state the required word count for your assignment. Do not go dramatically under or over this amount. Planning your essay well before the due date will result in less stress and also less time writing, as you will know exactly how many words you need for each section. If you use the introduction, body and conclusion model, it is recommended to have one main idea per body paragraph. Normally this is not included in the word count, but check with your lecturer or tutor to be sure. Use the Guide to essay paragraph structure and the Essay paragraph planner on this page to plan your next essay.
Here are some ideas for structuring your essay. Always check the assignment criteria and other information in your unit site for specific requirements. If you are not sure, ask your lecturer or tutor. For further details and examples, download the Guide to essay paragraph structure PDF from this page.
Remember that your marker will be looking for your opinion, your discussion and your analysis of ideas. Remember that these are the first words your marker will read, so always try to make a great first impression, to ensure that you provide your marker with a clear and accurate outline of what is to follow in your essay. Save the detail for the body of your essay.
- Writing an essay;
- Essay Introductions.
- Study Guides and Strategies.
Conclusions are primarily for summing up what you have presented in the body of your essay. No new information is presented in the conclusion.
5 Ways to Quickly Improve Your Academic Essay Writing Skills
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IELTS Discuss Both Views and Give Your Opinion Lesson
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Expectations What will my marker be looking for in my essay? How much should I write? Essay structure Here are some ideas for structuring your essay. The introduction Remember that these are the first words your marker will read, so always try to make a great first impression, to ensure that you provide your marker with a clear and accurate outline of what is to follow in your essay.
Provide background information about the topic. Introduce and define some of the key concepts discussed in the essay. Because this is the first paragraph of your essay it is your opportunity to give the reader the best first impression possible. The introductory paragraph not only gives the reader an idea of what you will talk about but also shows them how you will talk about it. At the same time, unless it is a personal narrative, avoid personal pronouns like I, My, or Me. Try instead to be more general and you will have your reader hooked.
The middle paragraphs of the essay are collectively known as the body paragraphs and, as alluded to above, the main purpose of a body paragraph is to spell out in detail the examples that support your thesis. For the first body paragraph you should use your strongest argument or most significant example unless some other more obvious beginning point as in the case of chronological explanations is required. The first sentence of this paragraph should be the topic sentence of the paragraph that directly relates to the examples listed in the mini-outline of introductory paragraph.
A one sentence body paragraph that simply cites the example of "George Washington" or "LeBron James" is not enough, however. No, following this an effective essay will follow up on this topic sentence by explaining to the reader, in detail, who or what an example is and, more importantly, why that example is relevant. Even the most famous examples need context. The reader needs to know this and it is your job as the writer to paint the appropriate picture for them.
To do this, it is a good idea to provide the reader with five or six relevant facts about the life in general or event in particular you believe most clearly illustrates your point. Having done that, you then need to explain exactly why this example proves your thesis. The importance of this step cannot be understated although it clearly can be underlined ; this is, after all, the whole reason you are providing the example in the first place.
Seal the deal by directly stating why this example is relevant. The first sentence — the topic sentence - of your body paragraphs needs to have a lot individual pieces to be truly effective. Not only should it open with a transition that signals the change from one idea to the next but also it should ideally also have a common thread which ties all of the body paragraphs together.
For example, if you used "first" in the first body paragraph then you should used "secondly" in the second or "on the one hand" and "on the other hand" accordingly. Examples should be relevant to the thesis and so should the explanatory details you provide for them.
It can be hard to summarize the full richness of a given example in just a few lines so make them count. If you are trying to explain why George Washington is a great example of a strong leader, for instance, his childhood adventure with the cherry tree though interesting in another essay should probably be skipped over. You may have noticed that, though the above paragraph aligns pretty closely with the provided outline, there is one large exception: the first few words. These words are example of a transitional phrase — others include "furthermore," "moreover," but also "by contrast" and "on the other hand" — and are the hallmark of good writing.
Transitional phrases are useful for showing the reader where one section ends and another begins. It may be helpful to see them as the written equivalent of the kinds of spoken cues used in formal speeches that signal the end of one set of ideas and the beginning of another. In essence, they lead the reader from one section of the paragraph of another. Hopefully this example not only provides another example of an effective body paragraph but also illustrates how transitional phrases can be used to distinguish between them.
Although the conclusion paragraph comes at the end of your essay it should not be seen as an afterthought. As the final paragraph is represents your last chance to make your case and, as such, should follow an extremely rigid format. One way to think of the conclusion is, paradoxically, as a second introduction because it does in fact contain many of the same features. While it does not need to be too long — four well-crafted sentence should be enough — it can make or break and essay.
Effective conclusions open with a concluding transition "in conclusion," "in the end," etc. After that you should immediately provide a restatement of your thesis statement. This should be the fourth or fifth time you have repeated your thesis so while you should use a variety of word choice in the body paragraphs it is a acceptable idea to use some but not all of the original language you used in the introduction. This echoing effect not only reinforces your argument but also ties it nicely to the second key element of the conclusion: a brief two or three words is enough review of the three main points from the body of the paper.
Having done all of that, the final element — and final sentence in your essay — should be a "global statement" or "call to action" that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. The conclusion paragraph can be a difficult paragraph to write effectively but, as it is your last chance to convince or otherwise impress the reader, it is worth investing some time in. Take this opportunity to restate your thesis with confidence; if you present your argument as "obvious" then the reader might just do the same.
Although you can reuse the same key words in the conclusion as you did in the introduction, try not to copy whole phrases word for word. Instead, try to use this last paragraph to really show your skills as a writer by being as artful in your rephrasing as possible. Although it may seem like a waste of time — especially during exams where time is tight — it is almost always better to brainstorm a bit before beginning your essay.